An Act to remove doubts as to the validity of the marriage ceremony common among the Sikhs called Anand. WHEREAS it expedient to remove any doubts as to. All marriages which be or have been duly solemnized according to the Sikh marriage ceremony called Anand shall be, and shall be deemed to have. THE ANAND MARRIAGE ACT, ACT No.7 OF [AS ON ]. An Act to remove doubts as to the validity of the marriage ceremony common among the .
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Sikh Law of Marriage - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Sikh Law Anand Marriage Act was passed in October Mrinal Pande - _ The Real Story of The Great Uprising (, HarperCollins India).epub. by Church in India, BFBS, Auxilliary Translation Society, Mission Press, Gospel Asia, Asia Mission, Asia Board, Seminary Tamil, Original Early Christians, Asia. 3, sikh. 8. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. 5. Sikh. 4. Sikhism. 2. Gurmukhi. More right-solid .. The Anand Marriage Act - -. by www.
He propagated the anand ceremony enthusiastically but faced stringent opposition from the traditional Hindus and Sikhs who dubbed him as a renegade and declared him an outcaste. He was successful to persuade Baba Ram Singh Namdhari who introduced the Anand ceremony amongst his followers in The next Nirankari chief, Baba Ratta Ji, impressed upon Prince Ripudaman Singh of Nabha, the necessity to obtain legal sanction for anand-karaj wedding ceremony through legislation when the latter visited his headquarters at Rawalpindi in During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the religious preaching in the Punjab by Arya Samaj, Christian Missionaries and Mirzais of Qadian was at its peak.
Singh Sabha movement was also launched to safeguard the Sikhs against conversion and to restore Sikhism to pristine glory. The movement leaders sought to establish separate identity of Sikhism by discarding all Hindu customs and ceremonies. Sundar Singh Majithia, supra Thus they contributed a lot to popularize Anand marriage ceremony. By this time, the controversy regarding the ceremony had become quite vocal and bitter. As most of the Sikhs had converted from Hinduism, the Hindu Law continued to be applicable and Hindu ceremonies including those relating to marriage continued to be performed.
Punjab Customary Law having been sufficiently developed, the Sikhs were governed by it. Hindu Law was to be applied to them only in case no customary rule was available. Customary law overrides the old Hindu Law in Punjab. Bose 22, generally known as Majithia Will Case is also relevant to be mentioned.
Dyal Singh Majithia had made a will of huge property in favour of Brahmo Samaj. His widow challenged the will arguing that her husband, being a Sikh, was not governed by Hindu Law of Inheritance. Rejecting her argument, the Privy Council preferred application of Hindu law over English law holding that Hindu law continued to be applicable to the Sikhs unless any custom or usage to the contrary is established.
The decision was considered as having adverse impact on the efforts of the reformers to distinguish Sikhs from Hindus. It encouraged Brahmins to propagate that Sikhs are bound to marry through Hindu ceremonies. It was not a correct interpretation because the Court had clarified that Hindu law was applicable to the Sikhs only in the absence of any customary rule; while the customary ceremony of Anand was already in vogue.
In spite of this, the decision encouraged the Hindu priestly class brahmins to oppose the Anand ceremony. On the other hand, it did contribute to the passage of the Anand Marriage Act as the Sikhs accelerated their efforts to get the Act passed to remove the alleged impact of the decision.
In reality, the popularity of Anand marriage due to its non-expensive and simple nature had adversely affected the Brahmin priestly class in their profession of performing the marriage in vedic form. They lost a major chunk of their clientele. These brahmins in company with other Sikh-baiters started a campaign against Anand marriages.
They contended that the marriages solemnized in accordance with this ceremony were illegal.
According to them, such marriage did not confer the status of husband and wife upon the 22 30 Indian Appeals, 10 parties, their co-habitation continues to be illegal and the offspring of such marriages were not legitimate. Such assertions prompted the Sikh intelligentsia to get a marriage law passed so that no one could question the validity of Anand marriages and the legitimacy of children of such marriages.
Anand Marriage Bill: The campaign against the Anand marriage by the Brahmins and some others was the main reason which led to the demand of the Anand Marriage law by the Sikhs.
Besides, the Sikhs also wanted to demonstrate the independent status of Sikhism by getting such a law passed. They asserted that Sikhism is a separate and independent religion with its own rites and ceremonies for marriage and other purposes. By doing so they wanted to push away the yoke of Brahmanism. They wanted full and uncontroverted recognition for the peculiar Sikh marriage ceremony with unquestioned legality.
Richards sympathized with the proposal and also inquired about the views of the leading members of the Sikh community. In their next meeting at Calcutta on March 1, , Tikka Sahib handed over to him the draft bill and abstract of opinions of about leading Sikhs nearly all of whom strongly felt the necessity of codification of their laws.
Tikka Sahib told that the Sikhs also think that the proposed Sikh Marriage Act will be the first and the most appropriate step in that direction. To codify all the laws at one time would not only be impossible but also undesirable, therefore we should proceed step by step The proposed Act is purely a technical measure involving no new principles, but only validating the Sikh marriage ceremony called Anand.
The Punjab Governments negative attitude is evident from its response, In the absence of any established necessity for legislation, the Lieutenant Governor would be adverse to the adoption of any such action. Governor of the Punjab. He confirmed the leveling of allegation by Arya Samajis and agreed with Tikka Sahib that proposed legislation will avoid uncertainty and litigation expenses.
Further he made a useful suggestion that the Bill should be introduced in the Imperial Legislative Council as it was to apply to the whole of British India. With his permission, as per procedural requirement, Anand Marriage Bill was introduced in the Imperial Legislative Council at Simla on 30th October It was widely acclaimed by the Sikhs.
To elicit the public opinion, the Bill was published in the Gazette of India and in the local official gazettes in English and in other languages. Various Sikh organizations, village panchayats and the Sikhs in India and abroad supported the Bill by sending resolutions in its favour. The Sikhs responded to the call with great enthusiasm.
Over three hundred public meetings were held and petitions carrying seven lakh signatures were sent to the Government in support of the Bill. Bhagat Lakshman Singh greatly supported the cause through the press.
The Namdhari sect of the Sikhs was quite vocal in support of the Bill. Maharaja Hira Singh of Nabha, father of the mover of the Bill was also a staunch opponent of the Bill. He opposed by publication of statements and pamphlets and also challenged the supporters of the Bill. None dared to oppose the Maharaja.
The well-knit organization of Kukas followed their spiritual head. Quite unexpectedly, Sunder Singh Majithia responded to the challenge of Maharaja Hira Singh keeping aside their family relations. It changed the wave in favour of the Bill. Soon after he left for Europe and returned only after the Maharajas death in They had not allowed the Nirankari chief to solemnize the anand ceremony of a couple in the open court facing Akal Takht in Sundar Singh Majithia when he came to pay obeisance alongwith his newly married son Kirpal Singh and daughter-in-law because their marriage was solemnized by anand-karaj.
Hira Singh. The opponents of the Bill contended that Anand was not Sikh marriage ceremony; it is the name of a collection of some sacred hymns in Guru Granth Sahib. They said that this ceremony was the creation of the Singh Sabha who wants to create new customs and ceremonies for Sikhs. Thus the support of the Bill is the outcome of their agitation and not of the genuine feelings of the Sikhs.
They claimed that the Sikhs have same social customs as that of the Hindus and they want to continue with the Hindu social and customary laws. These arguments were appropriately replied to and were proved to be wrong in view of general Sikh support for the Bill and hundreds of their communications in its favour from all walks of life from all over the world.
If a man is a believer in Sikhism, is humble by nature, and earns by honest means, with him matrimony may be contracted without a question and without consideration for wealth and riches.
Today, it is accepted that Sikhs marry someone they choose themselves. To show respect to their parents, seeking their approval is common.
Traditionally, the parents of the man ask the parents of the woman for their daughter's hand in marriage. History of Anand Karaj[ edit ] The history of the Anand marriage ceremony is traced back to the time of Guru Amar Das — , who composed the long stanza hymn "Anand", in the Ramkali measure, suitable to be sung or recited on all occasions of religious importance.
His successor, Guru Ram Das, composed a four-stanza hymn, "Lavan", which is recited and sung to solemnize nuptials. During the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his successors, however, this ceremony fell into partial disuse under the renewed Brahmanical influence at court as well as in society.
The Namdhari reform movement of the midth century made the practice of Anand ceremony a vital plank in its programme as did the later, more widely influential Singh Sabha. But there was opposition from the Arya Samajis and priestly classes; the former due to their position that Sikh faith was a sect within the larger umbrella of Hinduism and hence subject to Hindu Marriage Act. The Sikh form of wedding ceremonial eventually received legal sanction through the Anand Marriage Act which was adopted in The core of the Anand Karaj the 'blissful ceremony' is the 'lavan', wherein shabads are sung with the bride and groom circumambulating the Guru Granth Sahib.
The ceremony serves to provide the foundational principles towards a successful marriage and also places the marriage within the context of unity with God. The Act paved the way for the validation of Sikh traditional marriages, amending the Anand Marriage Act of , thus providing for compulsory registration of "Anand Karaj" marriages. Anand Karaj is not recognized in the UK, and a legal English marriage is mandatory.
This union is patterned upon the union of God with his people, his bride, the Christ with his church. Intrinsic to this union is God's calling to lifelong exclusive sexual faithfulness. Any serious discussion of the future of marriage requires a clear understanding of how marriage evolved over the ages, along with the causes of its most-recent transformations.
Surely, we ought rather to consider how marriage is evolving, the cultural and social pressures that have caused the marriage to change and be transformed, to continue changing in the years ahead, and to be different in different cultures.
If marriage is neither the result of a blind historical process nor the outcome of autonomous human construction, it follows that when a couple marry, they enter an institution whose terms are given to them. They neither invent the particular terms of their relationship nor gradually create their relationship as a project over time.
Marriage is an institution within which a couple live, not an ideal to which they aspire. The difference between an ideal and an institution is important. A couple may have in their minds some ideal and strive to move towards that in their relationship.
This is deceptively similar to marriage but actually radically different because to get married is to enter a status of relationship within which the growth and maturity are to develop. Marriage needs the security of being an institution with boundaries. Within this given order the relational dynamics can safely flourish. The marriage a couple enter has a moral structure within which the Creator calls them to live.
To understand this is a necessary precursor to stability and security within marriage; the alternative is the terrifying possibility that each couple must generate the terms and qualities of their particular relationship as they see fit. To do this is to confuse living up to the calling of marriage with the given institution of marriage within which this divine calling is heard. Essentially it removes the security of entering the institution of marriage, within which we are called to live lives of mutual love and faithfulness, and replaces it with a terrifying concept of marriage as the project of each couple and their precarious process of growth in love.
This is the logical consequence of confusing the status of being married with the quality of the married relationship. Both status and relationship are important, but if the latter is confused with the former, it removes the stability and the necessary foundation.
This is, of course, the obvious biological answer — or it has been obvious through most of human history. At one level this does nothing to distinguish human sexual relations from animal or plant sexual relations.
The purpose of sex may be seen, it is suggested, in its benefits to the couple. These benefits may include shared pleasure, mutual comfort and companionship, and the psychological benefits of mutual affirmation and unconditional acceptance.
This kind of relationship, at its best, can meet deep felt needs. The relational nature of humankind is focused in some way on the man-woman encounter. Although the Bible abhors sex-mysticism of this kind and any incorporation of eros into the divine nature, it does speak of the relationship of husband and wife, or bridegroom and bride, as a significant image of the relationship of God with his people and Christ with his church Ephesians Every stable society has had to say that sex needs to be controlled and contained in some way, and has recognized that this powerful drive in human beings can do great damage if it is allowed to be expressed with no restraint.
Every society has some taboos, some regulatory mechanisms, some forms of sexual behavior that are allowed and others that are forbidden. These taboos vary as social scientists and historians show us , but they always exist in some form or another.
So in one form or another, people have said that sex exists in order to be expressed in some ways but not in others. There are safe and healthy contexts for sexual intimacy, and there are dangerous and chaotic contexts.
It is a mistake to think that the emancipation of sex in western society since the s has removed the existence of restraint; pedophilia and rape, for example, are still taboo. What has happened is that the boundaries of restraint have changed.
They left behind a little bit of themselves, a culture, a belief, a way of life. Northern India was invaded by Moghul rulers in the 12th century marking the advent of swiftly spreading religious and cultural-revolution.
Fulfilment of basic necessities was a remote and far-fetched dream, the rulers brought about conversion using this as their bait. A very minscule number were converted by a genuine change of heart enlightened by the saints. Talking of a Muslim woman brings to mind a Burqah clad, plainly dressed followed by an array of children.
One also thinks of oppression and lack of rights.
One person does not come before the other, one is not superior to the other, and one is not the derivative of the other. A woman is not created for the purpose of a man.
Islam defines a dress code for both men and women. For a woman the dress code is a way of protecting her modesty and privacy-the face and hand being the only uncovered part of her body. A man is expected to keep the portion between his navel to knee covered. Woman has been awarded the liberty to work beyond the confines of her home as long as she does so with modesty, i. She must also prioritize her role as a wife and daughter and not neglect her primary duties.
Her earnings are her personal asset and she need not contribute towards the expenses of the household. Marriage in Islam is endogamous, i. Furthermore, if a Muslim spouse converts to another religion after marriage the marriage is again void. This is a very applauded and celebrated custom which safeguards the maintenance of a woman in the event of an unfortunate incident.
Controversy surrounds the issue of contraception; it can be practiced when conception can be a risk to the health of the mother. Whether or not availability of resources to provide is a reason for considering contraception is an illusion. Some believe providing for a child is the responsibilty of the Almighty, and one must produce as many children as possible. Divorce or talaq to be proclaimed by the man on 3 separate occasions.
Marriage is not dissolved the 1st two times. After the 3rd proclamation there is a waiting period of 3 months during which the maintenance of the wife and children is the responsibility of the husband. If the differences persist divorce may be finalized after 3 months. At the time of parting he has to give her the promised mehr or dowry and supplementary ways to support herself and children. After the third proclamation if the man wishes to marry the same woman again, it is permissible only after she has consummated a marriage with another man.
Also if a husband creates hindrances in a woman following her religious duties or believing in Allah, she can ask for divorce. Homosexuality is looked down upon and is strictly prohibited. If a sexual relationship has occurred beyond the set confines of marriage both the ones involved are to be given lashes. No sexual intercourse permitted during fasting, menstruation, postpartum puerperal discharge and religious pilgrimage haj and umrah. It is not for true believers men or women to take their choice in the affairs if God and His apostle decree otherwise.
He that disobeys God and his apostle strays far indeed Quran Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul toward divine consciousness and liberation.
Moksha liberation from an endless succession of lives through reincarnation is achieved by enlightenment. This Moksha can be attained only through asceticism. Jainism is based on three general principles called the three Ratnas jewels. They are viz. Right faith, right knowledge and right action.
Jains are recommended to pass through four stages during their lifetime viz. Brahmacharya-ashrama, i. Unlike the Hindus who look upon marriage as a sacrament, Jains treat the institution as a contract.
Friendship and marriage is considered to be a worldly affair and marriage is recommended so that the children born to the couple would also follow the same dharma religion. Its purpose is to make sex licit within a family. The role of sex between husband and wife is strictly procreational, so that its engagement is limited to the ovulation period.
They criticize the practice of dowry. Jainism sets celibacy-chaste living Bramacharya as the norm. The highest ideals of classical or traditional Jainism are represented by the ascetics-the members of the faith who devote their whole lives to living the Jain code of ethics in its strictest forms.
Jain monks and nuns are expected to remain completely celibate in body and mind. Chaste living is important to Jains because sexual indulgence gets in the way of the road to liberation. Jain monks and nuns practice strict asceticism and strive to make their current birth their last, thus ending their cycle of transmigration.
Sexual passion is so powerful that it can overcome rational thinking and ethically right behavior-thus producing bad karma deeds. The basic intent of this vow is to conquer passion, thus preventing wastage of energy in the direction of pleasurable desires. The monks have a realistic understanding of the power of sex and are counseled against its indulgence through suggestive literature, sexual fantasies and intimacy.
They do not think about sex and avoid remembering sexual incidents before they became monks. Jains must have sex only with the person they are married to. Jains must avoid sexual indulgence even with that person. Jains must give up sex, if possible, after the marriage has yielded a son. The householder must be content with his own wife and must consider all other women as his sisters, mothers and daughters. Some Jain writers suggest that even married people should not over-indulge in sexual activities, and have argued that the principle of chaste living will help in population control.
Chaste living also requires Jains to avoid sex before marriage, and to avoid sexual thoughts. They should not look at pornography or sexually stimulating material, so that they can retain a clear mind, unclouded by desire. Sexual deviations are to be avoided, including contact with lower animals and inanimate objects. There is a strong awareness among the world's Parsi Zoroastrian community about the threats against their religion and race. Many reformists believe changing the belief that one has to be born a Parsi to be considered a Parsi.
The rule has been relaxed for Parsi fathers and non-Parsi mothers but is rigid for the opposite that is Parsi mothers and non-Parsi fathers, whose children are not allowed or accepted into the faith. However according to Special Marriages Act it permits person marrying outside the community to continue practicing their religion.